Egypt: Internal Challenges and Regional Stability (Chatham by Lillian C Harris

By Lillian C Harris

Kassem presents a concise and available creation to Egypt, together with chapters on household politics, international coverage, economic climate and nation formation. it is going to be of curiosity to an individual learning Egypt from a social technology viewpoint.

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Manifestations of popular discontent (especially in the form of workers’ strikes) were increasing, as were sectarian skirmishes, and the 52 DOMESTIC POLITICS Islamic movement began to escalate the acts of violence that reached their climax in 1981 with the assassination of Sadat. By the end of the 1970s, Sadat had become the established leader of the Egyptian state bourgeoisie in fulfilling its new role. g. basic consumer subsidies, without which political security would be at risk; and what accrued to individuals would, it was hoped, encourage them to look for other providers than the state); and (c) make overtures to foreign investors, and seek partnerships between the public sector and international capitalism in joint ventures.

In the 1970s, aid from Arab oil-producing states increased significantly, averaging over $1bn a year between 1973 and 1979. After the signing of the peace treaty with Israel in 1979, the United States became the main donor and now provides some $2bn annually, with a further $1bn coming from the World Bank and other Western countries, notably France and Germany, in various forms. Egypt has also borrowed heavily to finance current spending, and outstanding external debts are estimated at over $45bn (including military loans).

Urban unemployment, and underemployment, is a serious social as well as economic concern, particularly as the large 34 THE ECONOMY number of new entrants to the labour force is being augmented by returning migrant workers from the Gulf. Yet any programmes or policies advocating birth control are highly controversial in a predominantly Islamic country; the authorities also have difficulty overcoming the natural view (in a poor country) that children are an insurance against old age. Moreover, children play a significant role in the agricultural sector, in which, as a result of urban drift, there are labour shortages, particularly at harvest time.

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