By Brinley Thomas
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Extra info for Economics of International Migration: Proceedings of a Conference held by the International Economic Association
Pp. 30-1. On France see my France Faces Depopulation, pp. 204 ff. 4 See also A. M. Edwards, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 1940, Washington, 1943, p. 158, Table XIII; Davidson and Anderson, Occupational Mobility, pp. 130-3. Brinley Thomas (op. cit. ch. 9) found that British immigrants were of a higher socio-economic status and climbed the social ladder faster than did the Irish immigrants into the United States ; and that immigrant stocks tended to rise faster when they settled in cities where educational attainments could be acquired than in rural areas where these advantages were not so accessible to immigrants and their children.
Cit. vol. i, pp. 217-20. In 1899-1910, 12·6 and 30·6 per cent, respectively, of the Irish immigrants with occupations were skilled workers and unskilled non-agricultural labourers. Corresponding figures for the Scandinavians were 20· 5 and 36·2 ; for the Germans, 30 and 19·8. See Reports, vo!. i, p. 101. Cf. B. Thomas, op. cit. pp. 148-51, 268-72; also pp. 60-3, for data suggesting that a disproportionately large fraction of emigrants frorn the United Kingdom, described as non-agricultural labourers and domestic servants, went to the United States and Canada and not to Australasia and elsewhere.
Coombs, The Wages of Unskilled Labour in the Manufacturing Industries in the United States, 1890-1924, New York, 1926, ch. 5, especially pp. 119-22; W. S. Thompson, Population: A Study in Malthusianism, New York, 1915, pp. ; M. D. Anderson, Dynamic Theory of Wealth Distribution, Gainesville, 1938, pp. 129-32. 2 The magnitude of immigration, in short, retarded the advance of wages when it did not actually produce a decline therein, most wages not moving upwards significantly until the influx of immigrants was greatly reduced by the advent of war and relatively unskilled labour was rendered scarce by military and other requirements.