By John N. Bahcall, Tsvi Piran, Steven Weinberg

If general gravitational idea is right, then lots of the subject within the universe is in an unidentified shape which doesn't emit sufficient gentle to were detected via present instrumentation. This publication is the second one editon of the lectures given on the 4th Jerusalem wintry weather college for Theoretical Physics, with new fabric extra. The lectures are dedicated to the "missing subject" challenge within the universe, the hunt to appreciate darkish subject. The target of this quantity is to make present examine paintings on unseen topic obtainable to scholars with no previous adventure during this sector and to supply insights for specialists in similar study fields. as a result of the pedagogical nature of the unique lectures and the serious discussions among the academics and the scholars, the written lectures integrated during this quantity usually comprise innovations and reasons now not present in extra formal magazine courses.

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We have substituted dv/dt = −∇φ(r, t), where φ is the coarse-grained gravitational potential at r due to all the stars in the cluster. That is, in neglecting two-body encounters we are using φ = φ, where ∇2 φ = −4πGρ. (7) Here, ρ ≡ (∆V )−1 ∆V ρ dV is the stellar mass density averaged over a volume ∆V which contains many stars, but is small compared to the size of the cluster. The number density of stars is related to the distribution function by n∗ = vf d3 v, and the velocity disf (r, v, t)d3 v.

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1979) Astron. Astrophyps. , 38, 15. ———. (1981) Astron. , 99, 298. Wevers, B. M. H. R. D. thesis, Groningen University. Young, P. J. (1976) Astrophys. , 81, 807. 23 This page intentionally left blank 25 Chapter 3 SOME POSSIBLE REGULARITIES IN MISSING MASS∗ John N. Bahcall and Stefano Casertano† The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, USA The unseen matter in a sample of spiral galaxies exhibits simple regularities and characteristic numerical values. 1. Introduction The missing mass (or light) problem has spawned many imaginative solutions involving neutrinos, gravitinos, axions, and other special proposals.