Ophthalmology

Corneal Collagen Cross Linking by Mazen M. Sinjab

By Mazen M. Sinjab

This publication offers accomplished assurance of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), a massive administration modality for keratoconus and ectatic corneal problems. All points are coated, together with refractive and non-refractive surgical procedure symptoms, types of program, safeguard, efficacy, functionality, end result measures, proof of CXL, problems, contraindications, use in youngsters, and controversies. The dialogue displays the enormous development that has been made in figuring out of the modality on the grounds that its improvement within the past due Nineteen Nineties. specified realization is paid to new ideas, altering surgical concepts and symptoms, the newest evidence-based technology and study, and the way forward for CXL. counsel can also be supplied at the use of CXL together with different modalities, resembling LASIK, PRK, intracorneal ring implantation and others. The textual content is followed via various top quality colour illustrations. Corneal Collagen go Linking will give you the reader with a valid clutch of the method and its use and may expectantly additionally function a stimulus to extra learn and advances.

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5), or oblique astigmatism (Fig. 6), respectively. 7 represents enantiomorphism. Fig. 4 In regular astigmatism, the normal pattern is the symmetric bowtie (SB) consisting of two segments (a) and (b). In case of with-the-rule astigmatism, the SB is vertically oriented 2 Patterns and Classifications in Ectatic Corneal Diseases 29 Topographic Shape Patterns Characterizing Irregularity [16, 18–20] There are several patterns of corneal curvature, and according to some factors, these patterns can be considered within the norm, suspicious or abnormal ranges.

The specific topographic signs of KCS were described as numerical values of topography that fall in the suspected field, and consist of one or more of the following signs [42, 44–49]: 1. An area of abnormal steepening, which is often inferior and can be central and rarely superior. 2. Minor topographic asymmetry characterized by an I-S value, which calculates the vertical gradient in corneal power across a 6-mm region. 9 D, respectively. 3. 5 D. 4. 0 D. Holladay also defined FFKC in terms of the shape of corneal topography [3].

It is a circular shape, where the two segments are connected laterally. Smiling face. It looks like a clown’s face (Fig. 9). Vortex pattern. Flat and steep areas are distributed in a vortex pattern, indicating corneal distortion (Fig. 10). Fig. 9 Smiling face or clown’s face 2 Patterns and Classifications in Ectatic Corneal Diseases 33 Fig. 10 Vortex pattern Elevation-Based Patterns The Normal Cornea An elevation map describes the height details of the measured corneal surface by matching it with a reference surface (RS).

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