By Sludge Treatment, Utilization, Reclamation, and Disposal Committee of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers
The remedy of water and wastewater leads to the creation of residual solids that has to be dealt with. those solids usually are targeted to lessen the water content material sooner than their important use or disposal. As those solids are extra processed and dealt with, their intrinsic properties-such as viscosity, rheology, flowability, and texture-change. even if a lot as been written to explain the chemical features of those residuals, simply constrained info has been complied describing their dealing with attribute and applicable technique of shipping. the target of this handbook is to supply a reference record that the practitioner can use to figure out the dealing with features of residuals and to choose applicable conveyance platforms. The monograph has been equipped into 9 chapters.
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Extra info for Conveyance of Residuals from Water and Wastewater Treatment
Cutaway of a Disc Pump. Courtesy of Discflo Corporation. material pumped. Minimum solids size also affects disc spacing. Straight radial ribs can be cast on the inside surface of the discs for high head conditions. This option brings the pump closer in design and operation to a recessed impeller. 47 m3/s (7,500 gal/min). Horizontal close-coupled and frame-mounted styles are available, as well as submersible and vertical cantilever models. Operational Features and Considerations. The main advantages of disc pumps are claimed to be the following: • Low wear rate in abrasive service.
Alum, iron, and polymer solids account for about 70% of the water treatment plant residuals produced. Lime and lime/soda ash softening process residuals account for another 25% (Knocke, 1973). The quantities of residuals produced depend on raw water quality, chemical dosage, treatment plant efficiency, and the season. There are three different methods for calculating the quantity of residuals produced: • calculations based on chemicals used, flow, and influent suspended solids; • mass balances; and • field measurements.
Total solids concentration varies depending on the upstream treatment processes. 0% TSS. If the sludge is allowed to thicken in the primary clarifiers, the solids concentration can be as high as 8%. Gravity thickening of primary sludge produces a sludge with a concentration of 5-10% solids. Dewatering can produce a sludge cake with a solids concentration as high as 35% solids. Changes in solids concentration, particle shape, and size alter the characteristics of the sludge and, therefore, the behavior of the sludge through various transport devices.