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Extra resources for Control of Cracking in Concrete State of the Art
American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997. ASTM C 1581. Standard Test Method for Determining Age at Cracking and Induced Tensile Stress Characteristics of Mortar and Concrete Under Restrained Shrinkage. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2005. Attanayaka, A. M. U. , O. O. Duyar, and H. M. Aktan. Early-Age Cracking Potential of Slipformed Concrete Bridge Barriers. C, 2004. Attiogbe, E. , and D. Darwin. Submicrocracking in Cement Paste and Mortar. ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 84, No.
During the cooling part of the cycle, the surface of the structure will cool faster than the core of the structure if the only path for heat dissipation is through the surface. Thus the surface of the structure will shrink faster than the core, resulting in surface cracks. Reinforcing steel can also be a source of restraint, but is usually not considered in thermal stress problems of mass concrete, except in the most detailed analyses. The location of reinforcing steel for structural purposes is usually not in a location to prevent or have much effect on cracking.
Retarders offer a delayed set time, which then aids in placement and makes the concrete less susceptible to cracking due to deflection of the formwork during the placement. This also results in lower temperatures during hydration and helps control thermal stresses. On the other hand, with an extended set time, a mix with a retarder runs the risk of plastic shrinkage cracking. , 1998). , 2005). , 2004). , 1991) which manifests itself in a reduction in the crack width in restrained concrete. , 2004).