By Mary Keogan, Eleanor M. Wallace, Paula O'Leary
This up to date immunology textbook presents a transparent and straightforward creation to medical and laboratory immunology for healthiness execs in education or in perform. It covers: crucial uncomplicated immunology medical immunology laboratory investigations of immunological issues remedies utilized in immunological issues. targeting medical difficulties obvious in perform and together with self-assessment questions and case histories to help studying and knowing, this can be a useful source for all scientific scholars, nurses, nutritionists, pharmacists and physiotherapists.
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TI-2 antigens activate mature B cells by extensive cross-linking of their specific B cell receptors. The capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type B is a TI-2 antigen. 9 Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) Molecules HLA molecules are the human MHC molecules. HLA molecules play a pivotal role in the normal immune response, and inability to express these molecules causes a lethal immunodeficiency. An individual’s HLA type determines in part their ability to respond to infection and predisposition to autoimmune disease.
Mitchell and Ramzi S. Cotran (2003) ‘Acute and chronic inflammation’, in: Robbins Basic Pathology, 7th edn, V. Kumar, R. Cotran and S. L. Robbins, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 33–59. 8 What the Immune System Recognises ANTIGENS The term antigen originally described any substance that could induce antibody formation. Antigens include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. Following characterisation of the cellular immune response, the use of the term antigen was expanded to include any substance that activated the immune response.
26 I N N AT E I M M U N E R E S P O N S E S I I I Cytokines are categorised according to the cell of origin into: ◆ ◆ ◆ Interleukins (IL) – produced by blood cells and primarily influence leucocytes Lymphokines – produced by activated lymphocytes Monokines – produced by activated mononuclear phagocytes. Common structural features allow cytokines to be classified into distinct families: ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ Interferons – IFN-␣ and ␤, IFN-␥ Chemokines – IL-8, RANTES etc. TNF family – TNF-␣ and ␤ Haemopoietins – IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-3, IL-7.