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Extra resources for Comprehensive Natural Products II Vol.4 Chemical Ecology
299 GAs secreted from the developing seed embryo move to the aleurone layer and stimulate the de novo synthesis of -amylase and proteases. These enzymes then move out of the aleurone cells into the endosperm to hydrolyze starch and storage proteins respectively, resulting in the production of sugars and amino acids, which are finally used for further development of the seed embryo. 2(ii) Effects on enzymes in vegetative tissues Microarray technique and proteomics analyses of wild plants and their GA-deficient mutants and the analyses of GA-treated and GA-untreated plants enable to profile the proteins that are regulated by GAs in vegetative tissues.
Many attempts were made to identify those proteins that showed a high affinity and a high specificity toward GA from GA-responsive plant materials, one being from elongating seedlings and another from the aleurones of cereal seeds. UK researchers led this field Transcription proceeds Transcription inhibited Transcription factors Transcription factors DELLA SCFGID2 complex DELLA OC O HO SCF GID2 complex OC O HO COOH GID1 COOH GID1 DELLA DELLA OC O OC O HO COOH HO GID1 COOH GID1 OC O HO COOH GA4 GID1 Figure 8 Perception of GA by GID1 and the degradation of DELLA protein.
Combining this with all the other information, we can present the GA signal cascade as follows. When GA binds to its receptor GID1, the GID1–GA complex has affinity for key regulators called DELLA proteins that usually suppress GA signaling. After the binding of these DELLA proteins with the GID1–GA complex, the (GID1–GA)-decorated DELLA protein is recruited by a specific F-box protein of the SCF complex into the 26S proteasome after being tagged with polymerized ubiquitins, to be degraded there.