Magnetism

## Compendium of Theoretical Physics by Armin Wachter

By Armin Wachter

The Compendium of Theoretical Physics includes the canonical curriculum of theoretical physics. From classical mechanics over electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and statistical physics/thermodynamics, all themes are taken care of axiomatic-deductively and confimed via routines, ideas and brief summaries.

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Example text

This makes them a lot more ﬂexible to use than Newton’s equations. Lagrange’s equations can be derived in many diﬀerent ways. To start, we use the d’Alembert principle of virtual displacements. It states that the total sum of work done on the system by the constraining forces vanishes. Additionally, we show how to derive the Lagrange formalism from Hamilton’s principle, which is an extremal principle of fundamental importance throughout the whole of physics. On our way to this, it will be necessary to take a closer look at some concepts of variational calculus.

LC + i So, the total angular momentum is composed of the center of mass’s angular momentum with respect to the origin of the coordinate system, and the sum of the particles’ angular momenta with respect to the center of mass xC . Total energy. 14) with x˙ i and summation over all i yield d dt 1 2 =⇒ d (T + Vinner ) = dt mi x˙ 2i i = 1 2 (x˙ i − x˙ j )F ij + i,j x˙ i F i i x˙ i F i , i where T = 1 2 mi x˙ 2i , Vinner = i 1 2 Vij (|xi − xj |) i,j are the total kinetic and inner potential energy, respectively.

Consider, for example, a particle moving in the earth’s gravitational ﬁeld along a given trajectory (slide). 2 Lagrangian Mechanics 27 constraining forces that ensure that the particle moves along the trajectory. 4 we have seen that the validity of Newton’s axioms is only given in inertial systems. In accelerated systems the equations of motion tend to be rather more complicated. In the Lagrange formulation of mechanics, no attempt is made at determining the external forces. Instead, their eﬀect is taken into account by reformulating the physical problem in an appropriately chosen geometry (conﬁguration manifold).