By John Shore
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Extra info for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties: Colorants v. 1
When dyeing with azoic components it is difficult to prevent some desorption of coupling component into the developing bath containing the diazo salt. The latter is also inherently unstable, releasing nitrogen to leave the phenolic analogue of the original arylamine. Thus recycling is not a realistic option for residual azoic dyebaths because of their complex composition . 14 Developers This short range of simple coupling components, comprising phenols, naphthols and 1phenyl-3-methylpyrazol-5-one, is seldom used nowadays.
In screening tests designed to determine whether dyes have an adverse effect on waste water bacteria and hence on the operation of effluent treatment plants, only 18 of the 202 dyes examined gave an LC50 value less than 100 mg/l and all of these were basic dyes . 7 Acid dyes These are defined as anionic dyes characterised by substantivity for protein fibres. 2). Wool, silk and nylon contain basic groups and the uptake of levelling acid dyes by nylon at acidic pH can usually be related to the amine end group content of the fibre.
High adsorption of direct dyes occurs during biological treatment of dyehouse waste liquors containing them. This effect is not dependent on the degree of sulphonation of the direct dye molecules . Oxidation with ozone or precipitation using cationic flocculants are effective ways of eliminating direct dye residues. 5 Disperse dyes These dyes have affinity for one or, usually, more types of hydrophobic fibre and they are normally applied by exhaustion from fine aqueous dispersion. Although pure disperse dyes have extremely low solubility in cold water, such dyes nevertheless do dissolve to a limited extent in aqueous surfactant solutions at typical dyeing temperatures.