By Onora O'Neill
During this number of essays, Onora O'Neill argues for an account of justice that's essentially cosmopolitan instead of civic, but takes severe account of associations and bounds, and of human variety and vulnerability. She explores the query of even if the claims and scope of justice are restricted through culturally or politically particular strategies and perspectives, and examines the calls for and scope of simply associations and the opportunity of a global with porous limitations and dispersed energy. Bounds of Justice will entice readers in philosophy, politics and diplomacy.
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On this account motivation must be fostered rather than found. 18 The second question that I shall try to anticipate to a small degree concerns the implications of accepting a critical account of practical reasoning. Some at least will contend, and with long precedent, that they see nothing wrong in the criterion of accessible authority except its total emptiness. To regard reasoned recommendations as conﬁned to those principles of action which all can follow – which are universalizable – has at least some implications.
Is it not intrinsically arbitrary to view existing commitments, and their internal revisions, as intrinsically justifying? - : The main advantage of both norm-based and commitment-based accounts of practical reasoning is that they provide a more direct way of grasping action than the teleological approaches which take either objective or subjective ends as the basis of reasoned action.
Of course, some authors who use the idea of second-order endorsement are happy to step outside an empiricist framework. For example, Charles Taylor’s conception of strong evaluation, although he connects it to the idea of second-order preferences, deploys more than the formal notion of a second-order endorsement, and cannot be ﬁtted into an empiricist account of action. ’, in his Human Agency and Language: Philosophical Papers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ), –. Philosophical bounds of justice So there is no general reason to think that action which receives second-order endorsement is autonomous.