By Peter Lydyard, Alex Whelan, Michael Fanger
Speedy Notes titles specialise in middle info and are designed to aid undergraduate scholars come to grips with a subject matter quick and easily.
This new version has been amended all through, new sections were extra on getting older and gender and the immune approach, and diagrams have been redrawn for more advantageous consistency of style.
immediate Notes in Immunology, moment version offers concise but finished assurance of immunology at an undergraduate point, delivering easy accessibility to the middle info within the box. The publication covers all very important parts in immunology in a structure that's excellent for studying and swift revision. additionally beneficial properties MCQs and solutions which try wisdom and knowing.
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When large numbers of mast cells/basophils are stimulated to degranulate, severe anaphylactic responses can occur, which in their mildest form give rise to the allergic symptoms seen in Type I hypersensitivity. Table 6. Main mediators released and their effects Mediators Effect Histamine Cytokines *TNFα, IL-8, IL-5 PAF Vasodilation, vascular permeability Attracts neutrophils and eosinophils Attracts basophils *TNFα, tumor necrosis factor; PAF, platelet-activating factor. Dendritic cells Dendritic cells (DCs) are so called because of their many surface membrane folds that are similar in appearance to dendrites of the nervous system (Fig.
Interferons Interferons are pro-inﬂammatory molecules which can mediate protection against virus infection, and are thus particularly important in limiting infection during the period when speciﬁc humoral and cellular immunity is developing. They can be divided into two groups, type I IFN (IFNα and IFNβ) and type II IFN (IFNγ) also called immune IFN (Table 3). 28 Section B – Cells and molecules of the innate immune system Table 3. The interferons Chromosomal location Origin Induced by Functions Type I (IFN-α/β) Type II (IFNγ) 9 All nucleated cells, especially ﬁbroblasts, macrophages and dendritic cells Viruses, other cytokines, some intracellular bacteria and protozoans Antiviral, increases MHC class I expression, inhibits cell proliferation 12 NK cells and Th1, γδ and CD8 T cells Antigen-stimulated T cells Antiviral, increases MHC I and II expression, activates macrophages IFNα and IFNβ are produced by many different cells in response to viral or bacterial infections, especially by intracellular microbes.
Section C – The adaptive immune system C1 LYMPHOCYTES Key Notes Speciﬁcity and memory Lymphocytes provide both the speciﬁcity and memory which are characteristic of the adaptive immune response. The two types of lymphocytes involved in the adaptive response are T cells and B cells, both of which have similar morphology. They have speciﬁc but different antigen receptors and additional surface molecules necessary for interaction with other cells. T lymphocytes Large numbers of antigen-speciﬁc T cells are produced in the thymus from circulating T cell precursors derived from stem cells in the bone marrow.