Animal Husbandry

Beekeeping: A Practical Guide by Richard E. Bonney

By Richard E. Bonney

I'm new to beekeeping, so can't provide robust specifics concerning the information of the e-book. What i will be able to say is:

+ the vendor brought the publication fast and good packaged.

+ The ebook used to be hugely urged to me through somebody who has been preserving bees, a number of hives, for over twenty years, and has plenty of honey production.

+ The booklet is straight-forward to learn, supplies extra assets at the subject, and is written in transparent language.

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G. Gross and Siegel, 1981, 1982; Nicol, 1992). Positive socialization with humans can result in animals approaching caretakers. Negative socialization can result in escape behaviours, and ignored individuals exhibit fear when exposed to humans. Although gentle handling may exert its strongest influence by facilitating habituation to humans (Jones and Waddington, 1992), feed efficiencies, body weights and antibody responses to RBC antigens are higher for positively socialized chickens than those held under similar environments and ignored.

Assessments of welfare standards may incorporate the following (from Broom, 2000): ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Physiological indicators of pleasure. Behavioural indicators of pleasure. Extent to which strongly preferred behaviours can be shown. Variety of normal behaviours shown or suppressed. Extent to which normal physiological processes and anatomical development are possible. Extent of behavioural aversion shown. Physiological attempts at coping. Immunosuppression. Disease prevalence. Behavioural attempts at coping.

For example, in chickens, exposure to a short-term stressor such as a brief sound resulted in changes in blood profiles such as heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) ratios within 18 h. The response peaked at about 20 h and returned to normal in about 30 h (Gross, 1990b), whereas peak H:L ratios were observed 4 h after corticosterone administration (Gross, 1992a). There may be considerable variation among individuals in their perception of the stressfulness of an event, absorption of glucocorticoids from the blood and response of tissues to glucocorticoids.

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