Veterinary Medicine

Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice: Companion and Aviary by Bob Doneley

By Bob Doneley

This is often a concise, useful and fantastically illustrated e-book facing problems affecting the various physique areas and structures and protecting anatomy, body structure, actual exam, medical thoughts and diagnostic tests. It is a quick reference for clinicians and a learn advisor for undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary scholars.

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Vesicles. Large proportion of the gland. Lined by secretory epithelium. They accumulate a carbohydrate–protein secretion in their lumen. • Lymphoid tissue. Foci of lymphoid cells and thymus tissue. PARATHYROID GLAND The C cells secrete calcitonin, which blocks the transfer of calcium from bone to blood. However, in contrast to its action in mammals, calcitonin does not induce a hypocalcaemia in normocalcaemic birds. It appears, rather, to control hypercalcaemia and to protect the skeleton from excessive calcium resorption.

Lymphoid nodules are located between these epithelial folds. Each nodule has a cortex and a medulla, separated by a basement membrane and epithelial cells. Lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages are found in the cortex, while lymphoblasts and lymphocytes are found in the medulla. In the embryo the medulla is the first lymphoid organ to produce immunoglobulins. Mature B lymphocytes, responsible for humoral immunity, migrate from the bursa to peripheral/secondary lymphoid tissue. This occurs as early as day 17 of incubation.

The pecten, unique to birds, arises from the site of exit of the optic nerve and projects a variable distance into the vitreous body in the ventral and temporal quadrant of the fundus. It consists almost exclusively of capillaries and extravascular pigmented stromal cells; there are no muscular or neurological tissues. It can be conical, vaned or pleated. The pleated pecten is the most common structure, arising as a single accordion-pleated lamina held in place at its free (apical) end by a more heavily pigmented crest or bridge of tissue.

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