By Hem Raj Verma
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Extra info for Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques
The cathode containing a small amount of the material whose beam is to be produced, is inserted in the chamber through the air lock. The ionized cesium then sputters the solid cathode material to produce negative ions. This ion-source is used to produce the negative ions of almost all the solid materials. Injection of Negative Ions in the Main Accelerator The negative ions from the ion sources are ﬁrst preaccelerated and then guided to the accelerator entrance by “injector magnet”. The Einzel lens assembly preaccelerates the negative ions from the ion source and focuses the beam on to the image slit through the injector magnet.
001 ) thick brass foil plus a 1 mil nickel foil can be used over the window of the tungsten X-ray tube. The copper and zinc content in the brass causes high absorption of Lβ and Lγ tungsten lines, while nickel causes high absorption of the Lα tungsten lines. Wide ranges of X-ray tubes are available with side or end windows. Latest developments in tube technology are the introduction of the dual-anode tubes. In a dual anode tube, a layer of chromium is deposited on a gold substrate or scandium on a molybdenum substrate.
Overlap. Similarly K-line of 16 S overlap with L-line of 42 Mo, K line of 17 Cl overlap with L-line of 45 Rh, K-line of 33 As overlap with L-line of 82 Pb. The extent of overlap is determined by the resolution of the detector. To tackle such a problem, Schreiner and Jenkins (1979) have given an oﬀ-line nonlinear least squares ﬁtting procedure as part of “RUNFIT” software which supports most of the intensity/correction algorithms currently employed in X-ray ﬂuorescence spectrometry. Donovan et al.