By Roy L. Johnston, H.M. Cartwright, V.J. Gillet, S. Habershon, K.D.M. Harris, B. Hartke, R.L. Johnston, R. Unger, S. Woodley
H. M. Cartwright: An advent to Evolutionary Computation andEvolutionary Algorithms; B. Hartke: program of Evolutionary Algorithms to worldwide Cluster Geometry Optimization; K.D.M. Harris, R.L. Johnston, S. Habershon: program of Evolutionary Computation in constitution resolution from Diffraction info; S. M.
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Extra resources for Applications of Evolutionary Computation in Chemistry
The fitness might then be measured as the length of time for which the robot behaves correctly, though it might alternatively be assessed by judging how accomplished the robot is in working through the sections of the maze it does manage to negotiate, rather than the depth into the maze it reaches. Early in a GP calculation the great majority of programs are very poor, and consequently it may be helpful to use a multiobjective function, which takes into account the performance of the program as measured by several factors.
5 Supported/Adatom Clusters Besides bare clusters in a vacuum (cluster beam) and clusters with passivation layers, another important experimental environment for clusters is a (solid) support. Nevertheless, this setup has been addressed in very few EA applications. Zhuang et al.  have used the EA method to study surface adatom cluster structures on a metal (111) surface. Miyazaki and Inoue  have found that n=13 clusters which are icosahedral in vacuo either form islands or form layered structures upon surface deposition, depending on the substrate–cluster interaction potential.
A third important ingredient in the Deaven–Ho scheme is the use of local optimization to improve each new cluster structure after its formation by the evolutionary operators. Such mixed local/global schemes are called hybrid methods in the EA literature and are rather common there. Here, it took several years before Doye and coworkers [26, 27] demonstrated that this is more than just cosmetics but rather a transformation of a potential-energy surface (PES) difficult for optimization to a simpler one.