Waste Management

Animal waste containment in lagoons by Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task

By Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Animal Waste con

''Animal Waste Containment in Lagoons'' presents a entire view of the state of the art perform of animal waste containment and offers instructions for destiny study suggestions. Practitioners within the following disciplines: water assets, environmental, geotechnical, and agricultural engineering will locate this guide to be very helpful. issues lined contain: destiny of nitrogen compounds in animal waste lagoons; Seepage and delivery via anaerobic lagoon liners; Clogging of animal waste lagoon liners; comparing seepage losses and liner functionality at animal waste lagoons utilizing water stability tools; Use of coal combustion by-products as low permeability liners for manure garage amenities; and Air caliber concerns linked to farm animals construction

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The rate of ammonification also depends on the biotransformation rate of the nitrogen-containing waste material and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of the waste. Ammonification results in an increase in pH, and if the ammonium concentration and pH are sufficiently high, it can lead to volatilization of ammonia into air. The distribution of NH3 and NH4+ in an aqueous system is largely controlled by the pH of the system. Ammonia is highly soluble in water with an aqueous solubility of approximately 340 g/L at 20°C and 1 atm (Merck Index 1983).

Ninety-five percent of the nitrogen in lagoon waste is in the form of ammonium (NH4-N) ranging from 130 mg/L to greater than 1,000 mg/L Apart from the obvious function of containment, waste lagoons are expected to separate the liquid from the solid phase and to reduce the quantity of solids through a digestion process. Organic matter in the manure is mineralized, leaving a nutrient-rich liquid that typically is used as fertilizer on nearby cropland. Lagoons constructed at sites with coarse-grained soils are often provided with a compacted clay liner to prevent excessive seepage from the lagoon and to limit groundwater contamination below the lagoon.

The fastest breakthrough of NH4-N occurred right around 2 months for the laboratory sample. This indicates that it may not be a conservative design practice to FIGURE 3-6. Permeability versus Time for Soil Type 3 Subjected to Swine Waste from Southwest Kansas. 38 ANIMAL WASTE CONTAINMENT IN LAGOONS FIGURE 3-7. Microbial Counts in the Effluents from Samples Subjected to Cattle Waste. account for time-dependent reductions in permeability of clay liners due to biological clogging. Literature is sharply divided on the issue of whether biological clogging is prominent in lagoon liners.

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