By A. Labeyrie

Over the past 20 years, optical stellar interferometry has develop into a huge device in astronomical investigations requiring spatial answer well past that of conventional telescopes. This e-book, first released in 2006, used to be the 1st to be written at the topic. The authors supply a longer creation discussing uncomplicated actual and atmospheric optics, which establishes the framework essential to current the guidelines and perform of interferometry as utilized to the astronomical scene. They stick with with an summary of ancient, operational and deliberate interferometric observatories, and a variety of significant astrophysical discoveries made with them. eventually, they current a few as-yet untested rules for tools either at the floor and in house that can let us snapshot info of planetary structures past our personal.

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**Extra resources for An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry**

**Example text**

However, in practice, telescopes operating on the ground, observing through the Earth’s turbulent atmosphere, are limited by atmospheric turbulence. 1 2 Introduction The inherent or diffraction-limited angular resolution limit of a telescope is determined by the ratio λ/D between the wavelength, λ, of the light used for the observation and the diameter, D, of the telescope aperture. A 10-m telescope, like the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, has an inherent angular resolution limit of about 10 milli-arcseconds in visible light (λ = 500 nm).

5 · 10−7 ) ≈ 2 m. That is what makes astronomical interferometry in the visible so difﬁcult and has presented many technical problems, some of which have only recently been overcome. In the rest of this chapter and the two which follow, we shall introduce the concepts which allow us to make the above discussion quantitative, and to turn what might be considered a rough method of estimating stellar diameters into a means of obtaining stellar images with resolution much greater than that of any single-aperture telescope.

Indeed, it is usually associated with the motion of a drunk pedestrian shifting direction randomly at each step. As can be realized, even without drinking, the ﬁnal distance from the starting point can amount to any value between zero and the sum of the step lengths, in any orientation (phase). These are the dark and bright speckles. 7 shows a representation of this experiment, in which several plane waves coming from random directions overlap. 3 Electromagnetic waves and photons 19 Fig. 7. Speckle pattern amplitude resulting from the superposition of 17 real-valued plane waves with random phases traveling in random directions.