By Donald L. Piermattei
Third version of the vintage surgical atlas detailing operative ways to orthopedic difficulties within the puppy and cat. insurance contains the pinnacle, vertebral column, scapula and shoulder joint, thoracic limb, pelvis and hip joint, hindlimb, and extra. It offers elevated emphasis on joint problems, besides 21 techniques and large illustrations.
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Additional info for An Atlas of Surgical Approaches to the Bones and Joints of the Dog and Cat 3rd Edition
Foals with a continued weak pulse (or low BP) and depressed mentation and that have not urinated may require further acute fluids, up to the maximum of 80 ml/kg or four liters. It is advisable to auscultate the lungs and trachea before and during aggressive fluid therapy, because pulmonary edema is an important theoretical complication. Fortunately, pulmonary edema appears to be extremely rare in critically ill foals aggressively resuscitated with crystalloids. Crackles in foals, classically associated with pulmonary edema, are more likely to represent opening and closing of collapsed alveoli rather than edema.
It is uncommon to find an increased PCV in severely hypovolemic foals, in contrast to their adult counterparts. This is probably because adults release stored erythrocytes into the circulation by splenic contraction during hypovolemia, markedly increasing the PCV, and this physiologic response is poorly developed in the foal. 46 l/l [28–46%]) is slightly lower than in adult horses. 26 l/l (22–26%), possibly as a result of a combination of fluid therapy and bone marrow suppression with illness. 12 l/l [12%]), as found in severe NI, results in decreased blood oxygencarrying capacity and tissue hypoxia.
Frequent physical examination and repeated measuring of acid–base status and electrolytes is essential for optimum treatment. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION Newborn foals can arrest as a result of the birthing process without any specific underlying pathophysiology. This makes them good candidates for resuscitation, in contrast to horses that arrest as a result of a disease process. Veterinarians require a thorough understanding of CPR in advance of these skills being required. An arrest is often a tense situation, in which the veterinarian needs calmly to direct other people who may have no or only rudimentary knowledge of CPR.