Egypt

Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier

By James K. Hoffmeier

Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is likely one of the such a lot fascinating rulers of historical Egypt. His atypical visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have prompted educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions on Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James ok. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be now not, as is usually acknowledged, an intensive advocating a brand new faith yet fairly a primitivist: that's, person who reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's thought used to be the previous state (2650-2400 B.C.E.), while the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier reveals that Akhenaten was once a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only real author God, in accordance with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come upon that introduced his monotheistic spiritual odyssey.
The e-book additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, providing an in depth comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out through students as encouraged via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious analyzing of key texts, works of art, and archaeological stories, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the effect of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.

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The fragmentation that had begun in the 5th and 6th Dynasties fully bloomed into periods of civil strife, with multiple pharaohs claiming rival thrones. The breakdown in central authority and the attendant cultural decay after Pepi II’s reign resulted in the dearth of firsthand written sources during this period, and major architectural activities ground to a halt. As a consequence of a hiatus in data, we are often in the dark about what transpired, and one has to look to later sources that may reflect on this period, even if that information is stereotypical and exaggerated.

Beiträge zur Kulturegeschichte Ägyptens, Rainer Stadelmann gewidment (Mainz-am-Rein: P. von Zabern, 1998), 63–71. 80 Urk. IV, 356–369. 81 Urk. IV, 357. 6. 82 Measurements from Dieter Arnold, Building in Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 60. 83 Urk. IV, 357. 7. wy, two pillars. 196–197. 85 Urk. 13–16. 86 Gardiner, Grammar, 495 (sign N 28). 87 Wb 1, 448. 9 Hatshepsut’s standing obelisk (Karnak Temple). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. normally written with .

138 David Jeffreys, “The Topography of Heliopolis and Memphis: Some Cognitive Aspects,” 63–71. Followed by Quirke, The Cult of Ra, 88–90. 134 135 30 Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism was lost when Userkaf chose Saqqara for his burial site. The same was true of the Abusir necropolis. According to Jeffreys’ explanation, if one takes into account the ancient landscape (without the obstructions caused by subsequent construction), the royal tombs north of the Niuserre sun temple at Abu Ghurab were in view of the Mansion of the Benben in Heliopolis, and so the visual link was re-established.

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