Waste Management

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste by Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

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6] Sengler G. et al. (1999), “EPR core design”, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 187, 79-119. [7] Sztark, H. et al. (1991), “Core optimization of the European Fast Reactor EFR”, Int. Conf. on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles, 28 October-1 November 1991, Vol. 1-1, Kyoto. M. et al. (1997), “CAPRA Core Studies. High Burn-up Core – Conceptual Study”, Proc. Int. Conf. on Future Nuclear Systems (Global’97), 5-10 October 1997, Yokohama, p. 137. [9] NEA (1995), Physics of Plutonium Recycling – Volume IV: Fast Plutonium-Burner Reactors: Beginning of Life; (1996), Volume V: Plutonium Recycling in Fast Reactors, OECD, Paris.

There are no technological limitations and constraints in their application. However, the development and implementation of advanced, more efficient technologies is still in progress, reflecting increased requirements for operational safety of nuclear facilities and the need to enhance the competitiveness of nuclear energy. Effective sorting and segregation of waste at the generation points, regulated discharge of cleared waste together with recycle/reuse of media and materials are among the most efficient tools prior to any waste processing.

Water pool storage requires active process systems to ensure satisfactory performance and continuous attention to preserve water purity. However, new designs including passive cooling have recently been considered. The spent fuel assemblies could be moved to a naturally cooled dry storage after a few years of initial cooling in the water pool. The minimum required time of initial cooling in pools is mainly related to the burn-up and the irradiation history. Taking into consideration the 20 to 50 years or more required for storage, it is obvious that the naturally cooled dry storage facilities could be an attractive alternative to water pools.

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