By Angela Randels-Thorp, David Liss
Acid-Base and Electrolyte guide for Veterinary Technicians provides a simple to appreciate but complete method of acid-base and electrolyte balance.
- Covers the body structure of fluids and their impression on acid-base and electrolyte balance
- Offers specific info on dealing with acid-base and electrolyte derangements in disease
- Includes entry to a significant other site with case stories and a number of selection questions
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Extra resources for Acid-base and electrolyte handbook for veterinary technicians
The fluid type selected should be continually adjusted based on the patient’s current plasma sodium levels throughout treatment, until normalized. If the length of time the patient has been hypernatremic is unknown, it should be assumed chronic until proven otherwise, and treated as such. In known acute cases rapid correction may be tolerated. However, in the majority of cases, the development period will be unknown, therefore gradual correction over a period of 48 hr is still often the best approach (Burton & Theodore 2001).
Patients with normal cardiac and renal function will excrete the excess sodium and water in the urine through natriuresis and diuresis. In patients that develop, or are at risk of developing, pulmonary edema as a result of underlying cardiac or renal disease, the use of diuretics such as furosemide will assist in volume reduction. In addition to IVF therapy in hypernatremic patients, if no vomiting or diarrhea is present, placement of a nasoesophageal or nasogastric tube may be considered to administer a slow constant rate infusion (CRI) of water.
Patients with diarrhea should be kept clean to prevent scalding of their skin around the rectum and may therefore require frequent walks and bedding checks. Bedding should be well padded to minimize self‐ trauma in patients with neurologic signs and seizures. Anti‐seizure medications should be administered if needed. Patients with muscular weakness may require support to mobilize the patient as well as frequent turning if recumbent. Placement of a urinary catheter should be considered to minimize the risk of urinary scalding in recumbent patients and to closely monitor losses.