By Peng T. Khaw, Peter Shah, Andrew R. Elkington
Many advances within the therapy of eye stipulations have taken position because the 3rd version of ABC of Eyes used to be released. This e-book takes a symptom-based method of the remedy and analysis of eye difficulties. it's been totally up to date with an improved model of the bankruptcy on refractive blunders and sections on glaucomas rewritten. new chapters were further on age-related macular degeneration and the worldwide effect of eye problems.
This best-selling ABC may be a useful source for an individual who offers with eye difficulties in fundamental care or in an emergency division.
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A high viscosity gel substance (viscoelastic) often is used to protect the delicate endothelial cells that line the posterior surface of the cornea during the operation. This is then washed out at the end of the procedure. Sutures often are not required as the tunnel incision is self sealing. These advances in technique have considerably improved the speed of recovery and visual rehabilitation after cataract surgery. Phacoemulsification equipment Removal of the anterior capsule of the lens (capsulorrhexis) Liquefaction of lens nucleus with an ultrasonic probe through a 2-3 mm incision (phacoemulsification) Extracapsular method This was, until recently, the most popular method of cataract extraction.
Remember that although the patient may describe the onset of visual loss as gradual, sight threatening diabetic retinopathy may still be present. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is typified by microaneurysms, dot haemorrhages, and hard yellow exudates with well defined edges. There also may be oedema of the macula, which is less easily identified but can lead to a fall in visual acuity. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy at the macula (diabetic maculopathy) is the major cause of blindness in maturity onset (type 2) diabetes, but it also occurs in younger, insulin dependent (type 1) diabetic patients.
Management—The patient should be referred to an ophthalmologist to exclude a retinal detachment. Ultrasound examination of the eye may be useful, particularly if the haemorrhage precludes a view of the retina. Underlying causes such as diabetes must also be excluded. If a vitreous haemorrhage fails to clear spontaneously the patient may benefit from having the vitreous removed (vitrectomy). Vitreous haemorrhage Scleral coat Detached retina Traction on retina Retinal detachment Retinal detachment should be suspected from the history.