Ophthalmology

2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 9: by Ramana S. Moorthy MD

By Ramana S. Moorthy MD

Starts off with an in-depth assessment of immunemedicated eye ailment, summarizing simple immunologic suggestions, ocular immune responses and designated themes in ocular immunology. Discusses the scientific method of uveitis and stories noninfectious (autoimmune) and infectious kinds of uveitis, with an accelerated part on viral uveitis and new fabric on infectious and noninfectious scleritis. improved detection of infectious brokers by way of immunologic and genetic tools and new biologic therapeutics are specified. additionally covers endophthalmitis, masquerade syndromes, issues of uveitis and ocular features of AIDS. includes a variety of new colour photos. significant revision 2011-2012

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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uveitis (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

Example text

Unlike class II molecules, the second chain, called P2-m icrog lobulin, is constan t among all class I molecules. 3. The CD8 T·lymphocyte receptor recognizes the fragmentclass I complex. 4. With the help of costimulatory molecules such as CD28·B7 and cytokines, the CD8 T lymphocyte becomes primed, or partially activated . A similar mechan ism is used to recognize tumor antigens that are produced by cel ls after malignant transformation. J lymphocytes, Processing involves regulation of the interaction between antigen and naive lymphocytes (B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes that have not yet encountered their spe· cific antigen), followed by their subsequent activation (Fig 2·4).

The basic immunoglobulin structure is composed of 4 covalently bonded glycoprotein chains that form a monomer of approximately 150,000- 180,000 daltons (Fig 2-6). Each antibody monomer contains 2 identical light chains, either kappa (K) or lambda (A), and 2 identical heavy chains from 1 of the 9 structurally distinct subclasses Antigen binding site Antigen binding site yNH NH, NHX' f-----,'<-- Hinge region Constant region eOOH eOOH Figure 2-6 Schematic represe ntation of an im munog lobulin molecule.

2-3 the CD4 T lymphocyte becomes primed. or partially activated. (Illus tration by Barb Cousins. ) HLA complex and the T-lymphocyte receptor. When helper T lymphocytes specific for an anti gen become primed and partially ac tivated, they acquire new functional properties, including cell division, cytokine synth esis, and cell m embrane expressio n of accessory molecules such as cell-adhesio n molecules and costim ulatory molecules. The synthesis and release of immune cytokines, especially interl eukin- 2 (lL-2), by T lymphocytes is cru cial for the progression of initial activation and the functi onal diffe rentiation of T lymphocytes.

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