By Carl D. Regillo MD
Reports the elemental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic ways to retinal illness. comprises broad examinations of issues of the retina and vitreous, together with ailment, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
4th cd . Phi ladelphia: Elsevier/Mosby; 2006:35 1-371. Electroretinogram Recording and Interpreting the Response The clinica l electroretin ogram is a mass response evoked from the enti re retina by a brief flash of light. Five different respo nses are bas ic to most clinical evalu ations and are stan- dardized intern ationally so that ERG results can be interpreted easily at d ifferent medical centers (Fig 3- 1): 1. "rod res ponse" (dark-adapted) 2. maximal combined resp~nse (dark-adapted) 33 34 • Retina and Vitreous DARK-ADAPTED LIGHT-ADAPTED "Rod response" Single-flash "cone response" Maximal combined response Approximate Calibrations y I I I Ib I I I I Oscillatory potentials L rod/cone responses osci llatory potentials 100 20 30 10 ~v ms 30-Hz flicker responses Figure 3-1 Diagram of the 5 basic ERG responses defined by the Internati onal Standard for Electroretinography.
B, Late-phase ang iogram demonstrates leakage of dye from claSSIC CNV (solid straight arrow) and occult CNV (open arrows). The transm ission of fl uorescence from drusen (see the small curved arrows in A) has faded. The large curved arrow shows staining of the scl era around the optic nerve. (Reproduced with permisSion from Bressler SB. age-related macular degenerarion IAMDJ and relatIVely good visual acuity. The Wilmer Retina Update. 1995; 1:3-7) 24 • Retina and Vitreous and is not visible. As fluorescein leaks into the space, the margins of the space trap the fluorescein and appear distinct, as seen, for example, in an RPE detachment in central serous chorioretinopathy (Fig 2-2D).
Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography: Technique and Interpretation . 2nd ed. Ophthal mology Monograph s. San Francisco: Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology; 1997. Kwiterovich KA, Maguire MG, Murphy RP, et a1. Frequency of adverse systemiC reactions after fluorescein angiography: results of a prospeclive study. Ophthalmology . 1 991;98:1139~ 1142. Indocyan ine Green Angi ography lndocyanine green (leG) is a wate r-soluble, tricarbocyanine dye with a molecular weight of 775 daltons that is almost completely protein-bound (98%) after intravenous injection .