By Kevin M. Miller, MD
Offers present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical concerns regarding foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs, and refractive surgical procedure and the layout, becoming, and problems of touch lenses. additionally coated are optics of the human eye, the layout and use of ophthalmic tools, easy strategies of geometrical optics and the present method of low imaginative and prescient administration and imaginative and prescient rehabilitation.
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Additional info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
For a simple thin lens immersed in a uniform medium such as air, the nodal points overlap in the center of the lens. Object and image distances are negative when they point to the left and positive when they point to the right (see Fig 2-9). Quick Review of Angles, Trigonometry, and the Pythagorean Theorem It is fuseful to review a few basic principles of geometry and trigonometry. A circle can be divided angularly into 3600 or 211:radians. 28 radians. It is frequently necessary to convert back and forth between degrees and radians when solving optics problems.
Changing the distance between an object and a lens causes the distance between the image and the lens to change, but the image still forms in only 1 location. CHAPTER 2: Geometrical Optics . 29 Mirrors produce images in much the same way as lenses (Fig 2-6). The comments made in this section regarding lenses also apply to mirrors. Most optical systems are rotation ally symmetric about their long axis. This axis of symmetry is the optical axis (see Figs 2-5 and 2-6). Although the human eye is not truly rotationally symmetric, it is nearly symmetric, and theoretical models of the eye often +6 D A Object Optical axis Image Figure 2-5 Basic imaging with light from an object point and redirects (Illustration developed by Kevin M Miller, MO.
Clinical Optics approximate the eye as a rotationally symmetric system. ) Object Characteristics Objects may be characterized by their location with respect to the imaging system and by whether they are luminous. Objects that can be felt or touched, that are located in front of an imaging system, are known as real objects. Objects that cannot be felt or touched, that are located behind an imaging system, are known as virtual objects. These concepts will be developed more fully later. If an object point produces its own light, such as the candle flame in the previous illustrations, it is called luminous.